Which of the following Is a Notable Feature of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change Quizlet

In the absence of a strong natural impulse due to changes in solar or volcanic activity, the difference between total warming and man-made warming is small: in evaluating empirical studies quantifying solar and volcanic contributions to GMST from 1890 to 2010, AR5 (Figure 10.6 by Bindoff et al., 2013) 89 found that their net impact on warming over the entire period was less than plus or minus 0.1°C Was. Figure 1.2 shows that the magnitude of human-induced warming since 2000, including the decade 2006-2015, was indistinguishable from observed global warming. Bindoff et al. (2013)90 estimated the magnitude of human-induced warming over the period 1951-2010 at 0.7°C (probably between 0.6°C and 0.8°C), which is slightly higher than the observed warming of 0.65°C over that period (Figures 10.4 and 10.5) with a likely range of ± 14%. The main surface temperature attribution studies underlying this finding (Gillett et al., 2013; Jones et al., 2013; Ribes and Terray, 2013) 91 have used temperatures since the 19th century to limit man-made warming, so their findings are also applicable to attributing the causes of warming over longer periods of time. Jones et al. (2016)92 show (Figure 10) human-induced warming trends over the period 1905-2005 as indistinguishable from the corresponding observed global warming trend, which takes into account natural variability using spatiotemporal detection models of 12 of the 15 CMIP5 models and the multimodel mean. Figures from Ribes and Terray (2013) 93 show that the anthropogenic contribution to the linear warming trend observed from 1880 to 2012 in the HadCRUT4 dataset (0.83 °C in Table 1.1) is 0.86 °C using a global global diagnostic global model with a confidence interval of 5 to 95 % from 0.72 °C to 1.00 °C (see Figure 1.SM.6). In any case, since the year 2000, it has been established that the estimated combined contribution of solar and volcanic activity to warming compared to 1850-1900 is less than 0±1 ° C (Gillett et al., 2013) 94, while anthropogenic warming is indistinguishable from observed global warming and, if applicable, slightly higher than it, with confidence intervals of 5-95%, usually around ±20%. In September 2015, the United Nations endorsed a universal agenda “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” that aims to “take the bold and transformative steps urgently needed to put the world on a sustainable and resilient path.” Based on a participatory process, the resolution in support of the 2030 Agenda adopted 17 non-legally binding Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 goals to support people, prosperity, peace, partnerships and the planet (Kanie and Biermann, 2017) 275. Climate factors fall into two broad categories in terms of impact on global temperature (Smith et al., 2012)185: long-lived greenhouse gases such as CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O), whose effects on warming depend mainly on the total cumulative amount emitted over the last century or the entire industrial era; and short-lived climate factors (FCS) such as methane and soot, whose effects on warming depend primarily on current and recent annual emission rates (Reisinger et al., 2012; Myhre et al., 2013; Smith et al., 2013; Strefler et al., 2014)Page 186 These different dependencies influence the emission reductions required by individual drillers to limit warming to 1.5°C or another level.

Once scientists have defined the term “pre-industrial,” the next step is to calculate the magnitude of warming at a given time relative to that reference period. In this report, warming is defined as the increase in the 30-year global average of the combined air temperature relative to the Earth`s temperature and the temperature of the water at the sea surface. The 30-year period explains the effect of natural variability, which can cause global temperatures to fluctuate from year to year. For example, in 2015 and 2016, both were hit by a strong El Niño event that amplified the underlying human-caused warming. The response options and associated favourable conditions are discussed in Chapter 4 below. Attention is focused on exploring implementation issues of adaptation and mitigation, integration and transformation in a highly interdependent world, taking into account synergies and trade-offs. In particular, emission trajectories are divided into policy options and instruments. The role of technological decisions, institutional capacities and global trends such as urbanization and changes in ecosystems is assessed. The combination of increasing exposure to climate change and the fact that there is only limited capacity to adapt to its effects amplifies the risks arising from warming of 1.5°C and 2°C. This is particularly true for developing and island States in the tropics and other vulnerable countries and territories.

The risks posed by global warming of 1.5°C are greater than under current conditions, but lower than those of 2°C. Carbon dioxide removal (RDC) or “negative emissions” are considered in this report as opposed to the mitigation measures mentioned above. While most mitigation measures focus on reducing the amount of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases emitted, the RDC aims to reduce concentrations already in the atmosphere. Technologies for RDC, despite their importance for ambitious climate protection pathways, are generally in their infancy (Minx et al., 2017) 243. Although some RDC activities such as reforestation and ecosystem restoration are well understood, the feasibility of mass deployment of many RDC technologies remains an open question (IPCC, 2014d; Leung et al., 2014)244 (Chapters 2 and 4). Technologies for the active removal of other greenhouse gases such as methane are even less developed and are briefly discussed in Chapter 4. The relationship between the basic conditions for limiting global warming to 1.5°C and the ambitions of the SDGs is complex and multifaceted on a large scale (Chapter 5). Linkages to adapt to climate change mitigation, including synergies and trade-offs, are important when it comes to opportunities and risks for sustainable development. The IPCC AR5 recognized that “adaptation and mitigation have the potential to contribute to and impede sustainable development, and that sustainable development policies and choices have the potential to contribute to and hinder the response to climate change” (Denton et al., 2014) 240.

Climate change mitigation and adaptation policies and measures can reflect and apply specific development and governance models that differ from one region of the world to another (Gouldson et al., 2015; Termeer et al., 2017)241. This report (Chapters 4 and 5) assesses the role of limited adaptation and mitigation capacities, the limitations of adaptation and mitigation, and the conditions of poor adaptation and mitigation. Cost-benefit analyses are common decision-making tools that compare the costs of impacts with the benefits of different response measures (IPCC, 2014a, b)294. However, in the case of climate change, given the complex interdependencies of the Anthropocene, cost-benefit analysis tools can be difficult to use due to different impacts compared to costs and complex interconnectivity within the global socio-ecological system (see Box 1.1 and Chapter 5 of Chapter 2). Some costs are relatively easy to quantify in monetary terms, but not all. Climate change affects human lives and livelihoods, culture and values, as well as entire ecosystems. It has unpredictable feedback loops and impact on other regions (IPCC, 2014a)295, resulting in indirect, secondary, tertiary and opportunity costs that are usually extremely difficult to quantify. Monetary quantification is further complicated by the fact that costs and benefits can occur in different regions at very different times, perhaps over the centuries, when it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully estimate discount rates for future costs and benefits. .